The Normans

1059 Treaty of Melfi; Pope Gregory VII legitimizes conquests by Robert Guiscard and his Norman associates under papal suzerainty

1130-1154 Roger II, previously count of Sicily, claims kingship of Sicily, Apulia, and Capua (1130); overcomes opposition of Pope Innocent II by defeating and capturing the pope. His successors are William I, the Bad (1154-1166) and William II, the Good (1166-1189)

1186┬áConstance, aunt of William II, marries Henry, heir of Frederick Barbarossa; on William’s death she is his heiress (1189)